Every air conditioning system comprises of three main parts, the condenser, the compressor and the evaporator. Former two are located outside the unit whereas the later can be found inside the system.
The operating principle of an air conditioner is based mainly on a highly volatile liquid named Freon, which is cooled and heated in order to perform the cooling function. Freon is compressed into gaseous form as it enters the compressor. As a result, the heat is released and the temperature of it is decreased. The released heat is exhausted outwards with the help of a fan. It is then led to the condenser, where the surrounding heat is absorbed and is again converted into a gas. Due to this absorption of surrounding heat the temperature of the surrounding is reduced. The process is repeated over and over again to keep the room at the desired temperature level.
Apart from these three basic components, there are some other air conditioner parts that also play a significant role. To dissipate hot air outside, it has a hot coil outside and to absorb heat from inside it is equipped with a cool coil. Moreover, it consists of two fans and electronic circuitry to control the temperature. Temperature control is achieved through the change in rotation speed of the fan by making use of a potentiometer.
Among the air conditioner parts, the compressor is the most important and expensive. Manufacturers provide warranty for this component to work efficiently for a particular number of years. If the existing compressor does not perform its function in the desired way it should be replaced with the one made by the same company. The important thing to mention is that all the AC manufacturers do not manufacture their own compressors. They just buy them and install them in their units. As is the case with compressors, so is with condensers, evaporators, coils and fan. They can also be replaced if necessary. A fan is the easiest part that can be changed as it is fitted by screws on the body of the air conditioner and with the wires to the electronic circuitry.
The outer casing is also one of the parts of the air conditioner unit. Normally, it is made of moulded plastic and can be found in several designs and colours. Buttons and knobs are made of similar material. If the back side of the air conditioner is facing outside on the road then pipe carrying water is also an important component to consider.